Violent conflict is the main driver of displacement in Mindanao: 29 percent of all the households reported displacement caused by the movement of armed groups, whether the Armed Forces of the Philippines (AFP), MILF, MNLF or other group. 9 percent identified rido as the cause. A further 9 percent identified other causes, such as economic factors (3%) or natural disasters (2%), as the reason that they left their home.
Among all households:
There was a strong statistical association between experience of displacement and experience of other forms of conflict-related violence in the tenyear period prior to the survey. Interviewers assessed respondents’ exposure to a series of events including direct exposure to, and witnessing of, violence, and experience of coercion. Among households that were never displaced, exposure to each item was reported by less than 1 percent of respondents. Among the 41 percent of households who had experienced displacement in the last ten years, up to 27 percent reported having their house destroyed by armed groups, 21 percent reported having their harvest or goods destroyed by armed groups, 19 percent reported witnessing the looting or destruction of their house and/or goods, and 11 percent reported having been attacked by someone with a weapon. As would be expected, experiences of other forms of violence were most frequent among households who had been displaced by the movements of armed groups. The survey did not assess whether the violence was experienced before, during or after displacement, or whether the violence caused or resulted from displacement.
Exposure to a violent event was on average more frequent among households that were displaced at the time of the survey. Over half the households displaced at the time of the survey (56%) reported having had their house destroyed due to the conflicts, compared to 22 percent of those who returned home, 11 percent of those who resettled elsewhere, and none of the households that were never displaced. Households that were displaced at the time of the survey were also more likely to have been looted (42%), attacked by someone with a weapon (24%), or to have witnessed killings of household members (12%) or other individuals (20%).
Exposure to violence over the last ten years was highest in Maguindanao. In that province, 45 percent of the total population reported the destruction of their house. Many respondents indicated exposure toother forms of violence, such as the destruction of goods (37%), being attacked by someone with a weapon (20%), witness looting (32%), and witness killing (16%). In every other stratum, exposure to any of the events was reported by 7 percent of the population or less.
 In total 41% of the households reported displacement in the last ten years. Some households reported more than one cause of displacement. Not all respondents specified a cause.