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Nature of Displacement

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Prevalence of Displacement

Overall, 41 percentof theadult population in the surveyed areas indicated having experienced displacement, andthe same proportion (41%) reported displacement over the ten years period prior to the survey. In Maguindanao, four out of five households (82%) reported at least one episode of forced displacement in the ten year period prior to the survey. In Lanao del Norte and Lanao del Sur, the prevalence of displacement over the 10 year recall period was close to 50 percent, or half the households (48% and 47% respectively). In north Cotabato, displacement had been experienced by 26 percent of the households. In Sultan Kudarat and Cotabato City, one out of ten households reported displacement (11%)at some point in the last ten years.

Figure 4: prevalence of displacement

Figure 4 -  prevalence of displacement

The periods of displacement reported by the surveyrespondents are aligned with thethree major upsurges in violent conflict, startingwith the “All Out War” of 2000, continuing in 2003 and resurging with the breakdown in the GPH-MILF peace negotiations in 2008. A short period of return in 2001 was followed by large population movements between 2002 and 2004(affecting mainly Maguindanao), and again in 2008 to 2009. Violent clan conflict (rido)has also intermittently caused displacement of households at the local level, as have natural disasters and economic factors.

Maguindanao has been the most affected by displacement throughout the decade, with nearly half the adult population being displaced at any point in time between 2000 and 2004, and again in 2008. Lanao del Norte has also been significantly affected by displacement in 2008, with 25 percent of the households reporting displacement that year. The proportion of households reporting being displaced has been decreasing since 2008, most notably in Maguindanao. The only exception is Lanao delSur, were displacement rose between 2009 and 2010, likely as a result of localized ridos.

Figure 5: Displacement over time

Figure 5 -  Displacement over time

Frequency and Length of Displacement

Forced displacement can be short term or protracted. It can also recur. Among the population under study, 19 percent reported having been displaced once, and 22 percent reported having experienced displacement twice or more. As many as one in ten displaced household (10%) reported being displaced five times or more. The length of displacement averaged 15.6 months for the longest event, with 30 percent displaced for one month or less, 24 percent displaced for one to six months, and 30 percentfor over one year at a stretch.

The frequency and length of displacement varied across strata. Multiple displacements were most frequent in Maguindanao (75%). However, the average length of displacement was longest in Lanao del Sur (34.7 months) and Cotabato City (24.9 months). The length of displacement was on average longest among those who resettled somewhere other than their place of origin, and those who reported being displaced at the time of the survey. Among households that resettled in a new location, the average reported length of displacement was 43 months, compared to 23.7 months for those displaced at the time of the survey, and 14.4 for those who returned home.

Figure 6: Frequency and length of displacement by sampling strata

Figure 6 -  Frequency and length of displacement by sampling strata